Construction is a very ancient human activity. It began as a practical necessity to protect against the elements. Humans have evolved to adapt to different climates over time. The first shelters for humans were simple structures that didn’t last very long.
Construction labor, the use of elaborate techniques and building materials, as well as the development and improvement of durable construction material, have all contributed to more durable structures.
Construction is a complicated undertaking, regardless of the building type. It takes a lot time, energy, and money to succeed. A comprehensive plan is the first step in a successful building project.
To ensure a smooth construction process, the building construction process should be carried out in stages. Before starting the planning stage, consider important factors such as the building’s purpose, finances, utility and the demand for the work.
What is building construction?
The term building construction refers to the physical activities that take place on a construction project site and contribute to the construction of a structure or a building. This process includes unloading of plant, machinery and materials. It also involves cladding, fixtures, fittings, installation, formwork and external finishing.
Building construction is a set of routine tasks that are completed by professionals. The process is long and requires a lot tedious work. It must be carefully managed. This process can easily be divided into three phases: Pre-construction, Construction, and Post-construction.
Step 1 – Pre-Construction
The client and the contractor must develop a plan for the project before the project starts. The contractor and design team will develop budgets, schedules and labor projections during the pre-construction phase.
The core team will define the project, and then prepare cost estimates based on the budget of the client. The team should also identify risks and find solutions for them to make the best use of resources.
Pre-construction is marked by a deliberate level of thoroughness, to make sure that all possible needs are identified early and addressed. During pre-construction, it is important to maintain regular communication between the project team and consultants.
Land acquisition is the most important step in construction. Location should match the requirements of the project. It is important to perform feasibility studies before purchasing land to make sure the property is located strategically and has no land-related problems. Before launching a project, it is important to assess its cost-effectiveness.
A meeting between the general contractor and client begins the pre-construction phase. Both parties can get to know each other. Contractors can also better understand client needs.
At this stage, both parties must agree on the goals and objectives for the project. The contractor will answer any questions the client may have. This meeting is an opportunity for the contractor to learn about the client’s vision, and determine if they are able to execute it.
The contractor can determine scope of work and feasibility of the project during the initial meeting. The contractor will then outline the schedule and define project deliverables.
Budgeting and Estimating
After the initial meeting, the contractor will visit the site to develop the design and layout. It is very easy to go over budget and material requirements when building a house. The construction estimator will share the details once the structural planning is complete.
Construction estimators estimate the quantity and quality needed of each material. The contractor will develop a budget which includes the estimated costs for labor, materials and machinery. Budgets will vary depending on the quantity and quality of materials required.
Contractors and property owners who have limited financial resources must apply for pre-approval before beginning construction.
After the scope of the project is defined and the contractor has visited the site, it’s time to create a schedule for the project. The schedule is a list of dates that indicate when specific aspects of work will begin and end.
The schedule is usually updated throughout the life cycle of a project to provide a more accurate picture of the construction timelines. The project schedule is critical as it impacts the overall costs of a project and profit margins.
Step 2: Building Phase
It is now time to start clearing the site. In the building construction phase, the project takes shape. This is an important step, as it involves many working components and deadlines.
From site preparation to construction, each contractor and subcontractor is now required to execute the plan.
Site preparation is clearing the site to prepare it for construction. Site preparation is the clearing of the site in order to perform any remedial or demolition works required before workers begin construction.
Site clearing includes removing unwanted materials, machines, and equipment. Some site preparation activities may require approvals. Workers must be careful not to destroy trees that are protected.
It is important to have a site waste management plan in place (SWMP) so that materials can be managed and disposed off efficiently and legally. The SWMP will also outline the reuse and recycle of materials when possible. Hazardous substances such as asbestos and contaminated waste should only be handled by professionals.
Site preparation can be done in advance or as part of the main contract. Site preparation is also part of an enabling works contract that includes soil stabilization, demolitions, access roads and service diversion.
Construction begins with excavation and ends when the interior and exterior finishing is complete.
After the site has been cleared, excavation can begin. Excavation is the process of removing earth from the ground to create a hole. In small sites, manual excavation can be done with shovels and picks. Large-scale excavations, however, use heavy machinery.
Excavation is classified by the type of material removed. For example, it can be classified as topsoil excavation, muck excavation, earth excavation, or rock excavating. You can also classify it according to its purpose, such as trench, road or basement excavation.
Now that the site has been cleared and excavated, it is ready to be constructed. The foundation can now be poured. The foundation is the lower portion of the substructure. The foundation transfers the weight of the building to the ground.
The architect’s drawings are used to build the foundation. The foundation is built according to the architect’s drawings.
Concrete foundations are used widely for the construction of structures. The choice of foundation will depend on the soil composition and water table of the site. It is important to test the soil in order to determine its bearing capacity.
For low-rise structures, shallow foundations are sufficient. For high-rise structures, pile foundations work best. In the trenches dug, builders will install formwork and reinforcements to build the foundation. The engineer must supervise the reinforcement work.
The framing process involves installing wood frames and beams of steel to support a building. This is a crucial but time-consuming part of construction, as it lays the foundation for the rest.
After the framing has been completed, the next step is to start the masonry. The drawings of the architect will determine whether to use ash bricks, concrete blocks or bricks.
Masons bind building materials with a cement-mortar mix. They leave gas for doors, windows and doorways.
Electrical And Plumbing Work
Specialty contractors are hired to finish the rough plumbing and electric work. The process involves the installation of pipes and wires beneath floors, ceilings and walls.
Only the rough work has been completed to allow for drywall, ceiling insulation and other finishing work. Points and pipe ends are left out, and will be finished with electrical and plumbing fittings later.
It is essential to complete the electrical and plumbing work before completing any other tasks.
Once the structure has been completed, the roof is then installed. The roof protects interiors from weather conditions, preventing disruptions and damage. At this point, contractors should begin work on the exterior.
Plastering is done on the exterior of the building. External cladding is also used to raise the house.
Heating And Cooling Is Work
After the roof and the exterior walls are in place, the next step is to determine the heating and cooling requirements of the building. The installation of ducts and heating systems, as well as vents is part of this process.
Next, plaster the interior walls to achieve a smooth finish. Then, install tiles on your floor. Installing drywall, ceilings, and insulation are also part of the interior finishing process. Installing light fixtures and finishing outlets can be done by the electrician.
Woodwork and Fixture Fittings
Now that the construction is nearly complete, it’s time to finish the plumbing in the kitchen and bathroom. The toilets, cabinets and windows are also installed.
Waterproofing is a process that prevents water from entering a building. Waterproofing reduces humidity and keeps the house dry.
The house will look beautiful and be protected from rain, dirt and sunlight. A good paint job will give your building an extra 5-10 years.
Step 3: Phase Post-Construction
The final phase before the building can be handed over to its owner or client is called the post-construction stage. Post-construction includes the completion of punch list items as well as the final walkthrough. A punch list lists the items that a contractor has to complete in order to receive payment.
The team will walk through the completed building to ensure that the project specifications are met. The architect and contractor must both certify that the structure is fully functional.
The architect will then issue a certificate stating that the work is completed satisfactorily. The local government will then issue a certificate if the relevant supervisors confirm that the building meets local authority requirements.
Now, the contractor can hand over the building and the property to the owner. Owners are given ample time to ensure that they feel comfortable with all aspects of the new building. The contractor will provide any training or support needed.
The contractor must also give the owner all blueprints and operating manuals.
Building construction is crucial to any successful construction project. The process is time-consuming and expensive, but it ensures that no stone goes unturned.
Pre-construction, construction and post-construction are the three main phases of building construction. Construction is divided into three phases.
Pre-construction includes the acquisition of land, strategic planning, budgeting and estimations, obtaining licenses and permits and hiring experts. Construction includes site preparation, foundations, framing and masonry, roofing, interior finishing, exterior finishes, and interior finishes.
The final step in post-construction is the final walkthrough of the building and its handover.